The deliberation to not act and go against standards of care, or the best practice is a serious violation of trust. Both personal, and public.

What motivates people to accept cutting corners, excuses, lack of leadership, budget and fatigue of not driving a program to successful completion?

Routines can be familiar but when one operator in a crew decides to deviate from the practices that were put in place, they open the liability door. Somebody pays the price. Others hide and live with grief and regret.

Sometimes personal character of an individual supersedes the motivation to serve the public instead of serving oneself. Manipulating a system for ulterior reasons, that are personal and not for the oath of service.

 When was the last time a mishap was reviewed in your department or group?
 How was the process engaged?
 Did you permit an outside subject matter expert to evaluate the data?
 Was the information distributed to enact change and address the identifiable issues?
 When a mishap occurs the obvious is determined. What did the operator, crew, mechanic or instructor miss?

Reputation can be evaluated on social media in a viral scope from all corners of the world and reference posters who may never have operated a Rescue Water Craft. Those posts will last a career span. Oftentimes they point out things that operators obviously missed, and its repeated hundreds of times, or memes and gifs go viral.

Many of the mishaps I review through social media had definite steps of setting up the accident that were clearly avoidable. But if the team instructor is not trained properly, and the student follows the same advice from the instructor, and there is no determination to challenge the training methods, it’s inevitable. Is this what people line up for?

Accidents, how often do we say ‘preventable’? It’s comedic, like ‘don’t do drugs’, or ‘don’t drive drunk’, or ‘turn around don’t drown’, phrases that have effect but are not practiced to stop the flow of risk. What does risk management mean? Safety is not a word, it is a way of being.

Many agencies should not have RWC programs. They are not ready. They have not conducted proper homework and they do not have the appropriate budget. But mainly they do not respect the craft or the usage.

Oftentimes those who created mishaps are rewarded with medals of heroism. This protects the mishaps from gifting the reward of progress and reducing risk for the next mission. In fact it enables the next disaster to go into effect.

Rescue Water Craft Training for Night Qualification


Personalities are selected through a vetting process to match up to a specific job description, attitude and capability. They are put through paces, educated, corrected and evaluated to see if they have what it takes to qualify. Or not.

There are definite draws to the various water rescue disciplines from a variety of agency personnel from military to lifesaving. Certain personality types are easier to lead into excellence, while others may be less mature, or disciplined. Most of that is from peer influence and personal influences of upbringing, values, culture and spiritual commitments.

Some rescue minded persons are motivated to excel for personal gain, team effort, community support, private psychological drive and stacking up a value to the worth behind effort and the altruistic or personal rewards.

Experience and perspective come into play with the hours in the field, research and study, practice and industriousness. A conscientious person will pay attention to fulfillment of the mission full circle. Industrious people work very hard and can be irritated with the unproductive team members.

Sharing the labor load of the rescue scene is a conscientious person is going to work really hard, put in very long hours and be the last to leave. Persons who are orderly like to have everything in order and are always cleaning up behind everyone else, usually women tend to fill that role.

Sometimes they are over concerned about details and they may be disappointed in the personalities who are productive because they may be making more of a mess. Know how to orchestrate agreeable persons and disagreeable persons to try to balance out the complexities of teamwork.

Personal traits are a big source of conflict in teams. This can relate to mission work in tension, conflict and friction.

Knowing the various personalities it is imperative to place tested persons who thrived in the specific roles needed. For instance: It is important for an RWC Operator to be comfortable in the water they work in. If they are not comfortable, it may be time to replace this operator and bring them to shore support.

How do you identify a mishap or rate accidents? Moderate to significant or got lucky?

Oftentimes after reviewing serious mishaps that I know were preventable, I have to say, how could this department not recognize the potential for harm?

It usually comes down to a lack of boating knowledge. They may have knowledge that is excellent in other stages of rescue, but when it comes to operating or implementing a power water craft program, they have assessed a casual program when in fact this is a high risk marine operation.

Who are your Subject Matter Experts? How were they tested and selected? What world experience do they have that is recent within the past 30 days and 30 years?

Oftentimes when I review a program, the organization was not prepared to have a marine unit. They lacked knowledge of the craft, maintenance schedules and budget. But mainly they lacked follow through after training to ensure their program was sustainable.

Acquiring a certificate will not protect you. The entire program needs to be reviewed annually. All mishaps must be reviewed and adjusted. Outside sources should be sought for additional knowledge based on modernizing any loopholes. Personal Protective Equipment has to be effective and replaced as needed along with RWC accessory devices.

Boating rules and regulations are constantly broken by public safety agencies using Rescue Water Craft. Lifejackets are not worn, rules of the road and not utilized, boating basics are not incorporated properly. Most of this is because training programs are outdated and incomplete.

Who is the program instructor and who backs their certification. Did your department determine if their certification was current and verifiable? Who wrote their training program, what type of craft and program management needs were resourced? How was this data entered and how is the program monitored and by whom?

How are the operators evaluated and why is their certification not revoked from a mishap and they get rolled back to training? How is the discipline process protected for teams, and who is the person monitoring and enforcing the program?

Rescue Board Training and Inspection

The community is fragmented by not conducted effective research. Instructors are self-proclaimed, self appointed or appointed by the agency and not evaluated annually. Instructors need to be assessed annually. Where does a RWC operator go for new content? Are they stepping outside their domain and going to where the value structure is: private enterprise.

People like to belong to something. They will affiliate with personalities that correspond with their own. Sometimes this is negative instead of creative. Creatures of comfort may protect hubris and not allow the science of physics to advance our culture.

Are you willing to let one of your team mates die and possibly yourself? Forget about the survivor, lets talk about the team. You cannot afford to be rescued during a rescue. How valuable is your career and reputation to you and your family? If you start with these simple values and expand them, it will be much easier to tune a program.

The Rescue Water Craft Association (RWCA) is the sole governing body for the RWC community. There is no other sole source that offers advances in the generation of knowledge. Others are taking micro steps. The best predictor for structure and rules applied comes from not only pioneers but those connected to the industry and a variety of water way needs, agency perspectives and direction.

The RWCA is our community peer group, it scales iinternationally. What we do is dangerous. It’s extremely dangerous. Think about it and let that sink in. Once you surrender to the risk involved it will be easier to being the process of engaging this risk to mitigate the flaws that exist and to clearly determine where they are and what can happen.

Because You Care.


Document Your RWC Program Results


James (Jim) Farrell Segerstrom

Jim Segerstrom is considered the founding father of organized training for flood and swiftwater rescue.

He had many friends in the water rescue community. We do miss his energy, wit and driven sense of purpose.

We enjoyed working with Jim for the Rigg Challenge that was created in honor of our friend Nancy Rigg. This was an outstanding
technical rally showcasing teams, knowledge, experience and timing.

Gone But Not Forgotten


We are river people whom mother nature’s rhythms have touched quite closely and been taught by one of her most unique characteristics. A river flows dynamically through its course, its lifespan. It maneuvers around obstacles sometimes avoiding them, sometimes breaking through them, but always traveling towards its end where ever and when ever that end may be. Yet that end is not finite. It is merely the beginning of another journey as the water is evaporated into the sky and re-deposited giving life to another river as it runs a new course. This is simple science, but the metaphor goes far beyond.

I’ve been fortunate to watch Jim interact with many rivers. He was a master of reading water. Skills can take you so far, but a carnal understanding of its powers goes much deeper. Jim was a very good at knowing when an obstacle needed to be avoided and when it could be charged full-on. He was the driving force, the main instigator, behind many innovations in professional rescue education. Safety was number one important. Above and beyond his exploits as a rescue icon he was an innovative leader and catalyst for thousands of people. .

Jim changed the professional rescue community at its core He brought focus back to what it means to train hard and rescue victims safely. Few know how difficult it was to establish the Swiftwater Rescue standard around the world. It started by researching a body of knowledge that did not really exist prior to the founding of Rescue 3 in 1979, and then proceeding on a 10 year expedition around the world to develop it. We worked hard, and our laboratory was a collection of some of the most challenging rescue locations in the world. We learned through trial and error how to give an initiation and empowerment to would be rescuers who faced the terror of moving water. We learned early the importance of the "moving baptism". The critical need to drownproof rescuers by immersing them extensively in the very element they feared.

Everyone thought we were crazy, and that this was excessive and dangerous training. Jim knew the importance of transmuting rescuer fear into rescuer understanding, joy and respect for the element of moving water. There is no doubt that these efforts will continue to bear fruit with fewer rescuer deaths and improved victim outcome around the globe. Let us not forget that Jim was instrumental in planting these amazing karmic seeds. Jim packed a lot of joy for us all in that dash between Feb 1946-Feb 2007. Godspeed my friend.

Mike Crosslin

James Farrell Segerstrom

Feb. 21, 1946 — Feb. 5, 2007

James Farrell Segerstrom, a Sonora resident on and off for 58 years, died Feb. 5 at a San Francisco hospital.

He graduated from Sonora Elementary School, attended Sonora Union High School and graduated from high school at Menlo School in Menlo Park. He graduated from the University of the Pacific in Stockton.

Mr. Segerstrom was a paramedic for 10 years. He established and pioneered the Swift Water Rescue Technician program, which was created in Sonora and became the premier program of its kind world wide.

A Civil War buff, he had a large collection of toy soldiers and enjoyed studying military history. He was in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserves for two years.

He was preceded in death by his father, Donald Segerstrom.

Mr. Segerstrom is survived by his wife of 25 years, Shiree of Sonora; a son, James "Christian" Segerstrom of Sonora; his mother, Mary Etta Segerstrom of Sonora; a sister, Ann Segerstrom of San Francisco; three brothers, Donald Segerstrom of Sonora, David Segerstrom of San Diego and Steven Segerstrom of Nevada City; and many cousins, nephews and nieces.



When I am called to duty God,
Whenever people fall,
Give me the strength to save one life,
whatever be the call.

Whether on foot or in flight, Oh Lord
with all of your might,
Lead me to embrace the small, lost child
or save the injured from the wild.

Out from rivers edge or overlooking this ledge,
Enable me to be alert and hear the
weakest shout
to quickly and efficiently bring
my brother out.

With my desire to serve, ability to
perform and the courage to act,
Lord, allow me to deliver my neighbor
safely back.

There are no bounds to which I'll give,
These things I do so that others may live.
And when according to your will,
My earthly tasks must end,
Lord, Please bless with your protecting hand
My family and my friends.

Segerstrom's Memorial Tribute:
Adapted and read by Jacquelyn Potts-TCSAR
February 17, 2007



We've come a long way baby...

When I was a little girl I wanted to be a cowboy.
Then I wanted to be a spaceman.
Then I wanted to be a horse.

I had a crush on a boy in elementary school and he had a dirtbike. I knew then that the joy and freedom he had was something I didn't want. I needed it!

Everything changed when I smelled the exhaust from his bike. I remembered my grandpa's race cars, they seemed so big and beyond me, but this little dirtbike I could ride that myself.

I got a paper route. I saved my money to make a mini bike out of a lawn mower.

Life was not a great experience for me at home, in fact it was awful, but it taught me to persevere, and that was the cornerstone of understanding along with my sisters death and illness, all these elements barked loudly at my psyche. 'You don't know what will happen', understanding this I did not want to waste oxygen.


When I was a little girl I dreamed big. That did not mean my dreams would be realized.

I wanted a dirt bike, I wanted a Stingray with a banana seat so I could go jump boxes and the creek in Carmel where I grew up.

I wanted to be a police officer, but I was told that was not possible, because it was not.

I wanted to be a fireman, but I was told that was not possible, because it was not.

I wanted to join the military at the age of 14 and go to the Vietnam war and fight like men, but I that was not possible.

Up until the age of 28 these were not jobs I could subscribe to.

But the Jet Ski came along.


The Jet Ski was the first motorized vehicle that allowed women in our generation to be competitive along with men. This motor sport revolutionized across the board a wide open door to women. Many took that invitation and opened it without caution but few have followed like those pioneers, those courageous young women who pulled throttle and created a big wake.

Notable women like Brenda Burns (Chambers) who as a young girl raced with her mother and her sister continuing onward and became a World and National Champion, and an inspiration to generations of today. Pay close attention to her story. Respect is earned and she is a person of renown in our sport to research.

I would come to a race and there would be 100 women waiting to get to the start line. They had to race motos. They had to go to a Last Chance Qualifier (LCQ) and only a handful would make it to the main event. It was tough, competitive and happening.

Know our female competitive history. Do your homework. You will thrive off the inspiration of your legacy holders. You may also discover the legacy you will contribute on your own efforts.

Men were my mentors as a child. There were no females in my scope that were doing anything outstanding at speed.

My grandfather was a great inspiration with his car racing and mechanical skills. His imprint is inspirational. My mother
was a tough cookie and her grit personified the 'can do' spirit in me.

30 years later, women are not taking that wide open door as I imagined they would from when I awoke. I believed there would be a flood, a tsunami of opportunity, but only a trickle is witnessed considering there are 7 billion people on Earth and at least .001% would qualify.

If you are a woman reading this your predecessors handed you the baton in the 1980's. Its 2018 and women are stepping back further than forging ahead. Are you the one to bring it all back? Will you be the one to galvanize a community and inspire the pursuit of excellence?

The Jet Ski Fever is still here, its held by a few of our pioneers, like myself, like Brenda. You know who you are. We love you all and you are held dear and close.

We train very few females worldwide in our K38 water rescue courses. I wonder at this phenomenon. Is it a target personality that gives themselves permission? Do women not want to do the hard work? Is the work load too heavy or dirty? Is the chaos uncomfortable? Yes, well it is and I do enjoy that discomfort myself, is part of the delivery package.

Remaining a little unreasonable has distinct advantages for a mariner. It means that your creative spirit can become a driving force, a major contributor to the greater good.

We women have a big house to manage of course, its a blend of stressors but through them we learn advantages: our beloveds, children, and career. Risk is something we are good at, analytics is our best friend, we can think at speed and juggle the juggernaut. Our male counterparts can take notes to benefit from to enhance their own operability.

Our physical strength is a bit not as level but we can learn leverage techniques. I am enthusiastic about training women, but being female is not an excuse, and we can enjoy an outstanding career.

Are you ready? We've had that door open waiting for you to enter. The room is very big and there are a lot of empty chairs.

Give yourself permission.

Contact your local marine unit or volunteer group and begin a pathway of purpose.

You will discover so much more than that Rules of the Road, the conditions and the terrors, you will discover the scope of your own determined spirit in the depths of the big wide open. Ask me how I know?

Your friend always.


Have any questions? Join the Rescue Water Craft Association
and discover what your community is doing to modernize standards, safety and reduce liability!

Content Creator – Shawn Alladio cares most about her community and the culture surrounding the safety of event service providers and Rescue Water Craft operators, working hard and dedicated towards protecting their reputation, distributing safety information and continuing to train these amazing individuals to the highest standards of care.



Our Founder wanted to find a unique way to support lifesaving through Facebook online donations. The goal was to raise funds and bring the community together at the Rescue Water Craft Association. What is the RWCA?

We are partners in water safety, not competitors. We are elite in our determination and seek like-minded ethical professionals and lay persons who understand and are willing to go the distance no matter how uncomfortable the adversity, how daring the storm or long the night.

Our core values are based on the acronym: S.E.E.
• Safety
• Education
• Enforcement


We hold ourselves accountable to our knowledge and are responsible in our actions. Our vision was to revolutionize lifesaving and ensure a culture of safety exists with personal pursuits in our community worldwide. Now is the time to unify our community and broaden capabilities by driving change and influencing the next generation.

The Vision: Donations are helpful and connecting our culture internationally can bring people to our new non-profit in a variety of ways. You can volunteer or simply share stories, each is a gift to itself.

“It's not about my life but the life of those who need proper training. I am not asking anyone to delve into donating because you know me, love me or hate me, but if you have a regard for helping out others and would not mind a tax deduction for your donation (USA), that's a nice thought.

Even so, if not, please like and join the page and I would sure appreciate your support of the Rescue Water Craft Association. My hope is to save lives through education that matters and not cause harm. I was born on the 21st, I think of my mother and my siblings and their children and marvel that another day arrives for me, for us and hope we all enjoy another gifted day.

We are contributors because we care, it's not about money, your support is good enough for me and I care with you.” Says founder Shawn Alladio.


As of June 20, 2018 the Facebook fundraiser has generated $1,465.00 USD

Facebook fundraising ended on June 21.

100% of the proceeds go directly towards funding the following programs:

1. Junior Boater Program
2. THIN LINE-benefiting Veteran, Law Enforcement and First Responder families

To join or make a donation to the RWCA please visit Rescue Water Craft Association


1. Craig Zulian, Australia (K38 Australia)
2. John W. Youings, Australia (Wake of Fame Inductee)
3. Patty Coston Webb, USA (Great Human Being)
4. Norbert Wysocki, Poland (Rescue Water Craft Operator)
5. James Worrall, Australia (Rescue Water Craft Operator)
6. Gerald Davies, Australia (Jet Rescue Sleds)
7. Mat Lanigan, USA (Water Safety Advocate)
8. Bob Pratt, USA (Great Lakes Surf Rescue Project)
9. Kevin Collins, USA (Great Human Being)
10. Amy Green, USA (Professional PWC Racer, Wake of Fame Award recipient, friend)
11. Ocean Priselac (Animal rescuer, waterwoman, friend)
12. Mario Vittone (Former USCG Rescue Swimmer, advocate for water safety)

Thank you all!

Yours in Water Safety!

Have any questions? Join the Rescue Water Craft Association
and discover what your community is doing to modernize standards, safety and reduce liability!

Content Creator – Shawn Alladio cares most about her community and the culture surrounding the safety of event service providers and Rescue Water Craft operators, working hard and dedicated towards protecting their reputation, distributing safety information and continuing to train these amazing individuals to the highest standards of care.


Helmet Liners Help

Why a helmet liner? Because of colder temperatures, keeping hair out of your eyes or as a distraction or if you do not have a properly fitted helmet or your helmet is aging (is it time to retire it?).

What is a proper fitted helmet? Well, it’s simple. Water rescue helmets are made with a mold, one mold, heads are not. Skulls are all different types! Adjustments may be needed as its impossible to find a perfect fit for every skull type.

Plus it helps for bald folks or to manage scalp contact to the inner guts of a helmet.


1. Caucasoid-Long and Narrow
2. Mongoloid-Shorter and Broader
3. Negroid-Long Front to Back

We can cite the use of the terms brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial, which form part of a cranial index terminology used to describe facial types.(1) This is done often for orthodontic work.



Have you ever seen a custom molded helmet? Well sort of! The manufacturers focus on the interior structure of the helmet. The interior padding varies. Some models you can replace or add additional pads to take up the voids or to prevent the ‘bucket effect’.
For me my ear protection is a double edge sword. I need to hear (no ear covering), but I need to protect my ear canal (ear covering). So I choose to wear either a balaclava or a cap. Sometimes these are neoprene and sometimes lycra or cotton.

I like this one for the summer:

Mission Enduracool Cooling Helmet Liner, $13.00 USD

• Body: 92% Polyester/8% Spandex; Mesh: 100% Polyester
• When wet, cools instantly
• UPF 45 protection from the sun
• Chemical-free, wearable cooling in and out of the helmet; one size
• Wicks away sweat from the head
• Regulates evaporation to help cool
• Logo style and packaging may vary

Check them out:

Mission Helmet Liners

Science of Skulls

Content Creator - June 20, 2018
Shawn Alladio cares most about her community and the culture surrounding the safety of event service providers and Rescue Water Craft operators, working hard and dedicated towards protecting their reputation, distributing safety information and continuing to train these amazing individuals to the highest standards of care.


SPOT X 2-Way Satellite Messenger

SPOT X 2-Way Satellite Messenger

Well, its costly, but then how much are we worth? $249.00 USD

There is also an annual subscription plan so you can double that if you add insurance and a few other items.

What they say: Stay connected with friends and get found fast in an emergency with the SPOT X 2-way satellite messenger. Send and receive texts to and from any cell number and communicate directly with rescuers.

Rechargeable lithium polymer

6.5 x 2.9 x 0.9 inches

7 ounces

Spot On

Technical specs

Best Use Multisport
GPS/Satellite Detectable Yes
Average Battery Life 240 hrs. (10 min. tracking intervals)
Battery Type Lithium Ion
Batteries Rechargeable lithium polymer
Messaging Capability 2-Way Messaging
SOS Function Yes
Device Integration None
Location Accuracy 3 meters
Compass Yes
Altimeter No
Waterproof Yes
Water-Resistance Rating IPX7
Dimensions 6.5 x 2.9 x 0.9 inches
Weight 7 ounces
Color: Orange/black


• 2-way satellite messaging keeps you in touch with family and friends from virtually anywhere in the world, even outside of cell range (satellite subscription sold separately)
• Provides direct communication with search and rescue services in case of an emergency
• Send an SOS to the 24/7 Search & Rescue center, message back and forth about the nature of your emergency and receive confirmation when help is on the way
• Select from 2, 5, 10, 30 or 60 min. tracking intervals to let family and friends follow your progress with SPOT's easy-to-use Google Maps interface
• Check in with the push of a button to quickly and easily let everyone on your list know you're OK
• Link to your Facebook and Twitter accounts to keep your social media contacts in the know wherever you go
• Built-in compass and programmable waypoints help you navigate

Don't forget this!
An additional SPOT Service Plan is required for operation. Visit vendor website to shop satellite subscription plans and additional services

We have been using SPOT locator beams and tracking devices for years, in fact we have over 14 items and it becomes very expensive

We consider this a second insurance policy.

How much would a funeral cost, how much would a rescue cost, and the questions go on and on and that is how we level out the investment annual costs vs. the reality of rescue and becoming a statistic.

I would also encourage you to consider looking at the Delorem inReach devices, as they had these type of two way sat communication devices first, we also enjoy using their products.

Content Creator - June 20, 2018
Shawn Alladio cares most about her community and the culture surrounding the safety of event service providers and Rescue Water Craft operators, working hard and dedicated towards protecting their reputation, distributing safety information and continuing to train these amazing individuals to the highest standards of care.

Earth’s Atmospheric Layers

Let’s get to know Earth a little better! Earth’s atmospheric layers are one of our direct relationship values for our work regarding weather. Earth’s atmosphere can be divided (called atmospheric stratification) into 5 main layers. We are reliant on weather for survival, work and safety.

We study the atmospheric changes, climate and volcanic and earthquake activity that may lead to tsunami. Let’s take a few moments to understand better the planet we live on.

Excluding the exosphere, the atmosphere has 4 primary layers:

1. Troposphere
2. Stratosphere
3. Mesosphere
4. Thermosphere

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).

By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth’s troposphere and in artificial atmospheres.

The three major constituents of Earth’s atmosphere:
1. nitrogen
2. oxygen
3. argon

Water vapor accounts for roughly 0.25% of the atmosphere by mass.

Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air through the troposphere, and the means (with ocean circulation) by which heat is distributed around Earth. The large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year, but the basic structure remains fairly constant because it is determined by Earth’s rotation rate and the difference in solar radiation between the equator and poles.

The troposphere starts at the Earth’s surface and extends 8 to 14.5 kilometers high (5 to 9 miles). This part of the atmosphere is the most dense. Almost all weather is in this region.

The stratosphere starts just above the troposphere and extends to 50 kilometers (31 miles) high. The ozone layer, which absorbs and scatters the solar ultraviolet radiation, is in this layer.

The mesosphere starts just above the stratosphere and extends to 85 kilometers (53 miles) high. Meteors burn up in this layer

The thermosphere starts just above the mesosphere and extends to 600 kilometers (372 miles) high. Aurora and satellites occur in this layer.

The ionosphere is an abundant layer of electrons and ionized atoms and molecules that stretches from about 48 kilometers (30 miles) above the surface to the edge of space at about 965 km (600 mi), overlapping into the mesosphere and thermosphere. This dynamic region grows and shrinks based on solar conditions and divides further into the sub-regions: D, E and F; based on what wavelength of solar radiation is absorbed. The ionosphere is a critical link in the chain of Sun-Earth interactions. This region is what makes radio communications possible.

This is the upper limit of our atmosphere. It extends from the top of the thermosphere up to 10,000 km (6,200 mi).

Credit: NASA/Goddard

This spectacular image of sunset on the Indian Ocean was taken by astronauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The image presents an edge-on, or limb view, of the Earth’s atmosphere as seen from orbit. The Earth’s curvature is visible along the horizon line, or limb, that extends across the image from centre left to lower right.

Above the darkened surface of the Earth, a brilliant sequence of colours roughly denotes several layers of the atmosphere. Deep oranges and yellows appear in the troposphere, which extends from the Earth’s surface to 6–20 km high. This layer contains over 80 percent of the mass of the atmosphere and almost all of the water vapour, clouds, and precipitation. Several dark cloud layers are visible within this layer. Variations in the colours are due mainly to varying concentrations of either clouds or aerosols (airborne particles or droplets).

The pink to white region above the clouds appears to be the stratosphere; this atmospheric layer generally has little or no clouds and extends up to approximately 50 km above the Earth’s surface. Above the stratosphere, blue layers mark the upper atmosphere (including the mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, and exosphere) as it gradually fades into the blackness of outer space.

The ISS was located over the southern Indian Ocean when this picture was taken, with the astronaut observer looking towards the west. Astronauts aboard the ISS see 16 sunrises and sunsets per day due to their high orbital velocity (greater than 28,000 km per hour).

The multiple chances for photography are fortunate, as at that speed each sunrise or sunset event only lasts a few seconds! Image acquired with a Nikon D3 digital camera, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

By Kelvinsong [CC BY-SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], from Wikimedia Commons



Father's Day

The hardest of any edge is a sharp tone of reckoning.

Those crisp brilliant colors are born from blended union.

Nothing stands alone.

A dark compass of hurt will require the endurance of release, all to forgive, nothing to forget, so we repeat.

Your efforts carry many, your protection is life of another.



There is no scale that cannot bear this weight.

Our folly lies close, more so at our demise so our lives are demanding the audience of approval.

Thousands of repetitions hone a skill, what will it take for our hearts?

Come home, that is the goal on the backside.

Coming Home

Stay with your own kind and endure, surely nothing denied will escape time, without us, with us; each moment holds captive potential. Praise your elders and listen.

Your wise teachers, those who suffered and felt the sting of defeat, those valiant sentinels who do not interfere, honor them and listen.

Come home back to harbor, security and family.

Your ending is most important. You matter most.

Happy Father's Day from K38

Shawn Alladio – 6.17.2018

Shawn cares most about her community and the culture surrounding the safety of event service providers and Rescue Water Craft operators, working hard and dedicated towards protecting their reputation, distributing safety information and continuing to train these amazing individuals to the highest standards of care.


Ethanol in the United States is a big problem for our rescue water craft engines.

The problems with ethanol in other countries may not exist due to the corn based fuel we are using here in the USA.

Ethanol is a big concern for us as it acts as a solvent, is not good for long term fuel storage and gums up breather vent hoses for our fuel tanks. Inspections have increased and so have expenses.

Now we must purchase of marine grade fuel additive. One more problem to manage!

Storage needs to be limited of fuel for a period of 14 days in storage cans.

Make sure you are using a Marine Grade Fuel conditioner.

Fuel pumps can easily be destroyed, fuel filters clogged with the toothpaste looking ethanol.

Gaskets, rubber and the interior of fuel lines and storage cans are problematic.

No matter what it boils down to, it’s money. You need to update your RWC annual budget and calculate how many gallons of estimate fuel burn to expect. Then do the math for fuel additive to fuel use and determine what your budget will require.

More time and money to manage, inspect and maintain hourly logs.

Most importantly this becomes a safety issue and a liability issue.

This is one action your department cannot afford to ignore.

Be careful with gummed up fuel ventilation hoses, the fuel tank needs to expand and contract with atmopspheric changes, such as heat or cold. Make sure you remove the seats prior to starting your Rescue Water Craft and allowing any low lying fumes to ventilate prior to engine start.

You are going to have to add in additional budgetary needs to cover the expense of a fuel stabilizer.

Add this check on your department inspection logs and make sure that you maintain efficiency with proper use and care.

These suggestions are to help you maintain a safe operation of your Marine Unit. However, please conduct your own research and update annually your program to compliment any changes in our Rescue Water Craft community.

Have any questions? Join the Rescue Water Craft Association
and discover what your community is doing to modernize standards, safety and reduce liability!

Content Creator – Shawn Alladio cares most about her community and the culture surrounding the safety of event service providers and Rescue Water Craft operators, working hard and dedicated towards protecting their reputation, distributing safety information and continuing to train these amazing individuals to the highest standards of care.